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What Is Spunlace Nonwoven...
Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI)
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Transformer: What is it? ...
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What are the advantages o...
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What is permeation?
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Pressure Vessels
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Oil Filters: Quality Matt...
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Chip fuse is pulse and te...
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Cable Cable Cable Cable
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What is an Air Curtain?
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  What Is Spunlace Nonwoven Fabric
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 2 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

Do you know what spunlace nonwoven fabric is? Spunlace Nonwoven Fabric is one of many nonwoven fabrics. Everyone may feel unfamiliar to hear the name, but in fact, we often use spunlace nonwoven products in our daily life, such as wet towels, cleaning wipes, disposable face towels, facial mask paper, etc. This article I will introduce spunlace nonwoven fabrics in detail.

The Process Of Spunlaced Nonwoven Fabric
Nonwoven fabric is a kind of fabric that does not need to be woven. It just arranges polypropylene, polyester and other fiber materials directed or randomly to form a fiber net structure, and then uses mechanical,chemical or thermal bonding methods to reinforce them. Simply speaking, it is the bonding of fibers directly together, but it’s not interwoven and knit together by yarns. Therefore, when we get the nonwoven fabric, we will find that it has no warp and weft threads, and the thread residues can not be drawn out. It is easier to cut, sew and shape. Nonwoven fabric has the characteristics of short process flow, wide source of raw materials, fast production rate, low cost, high output, multiple product types, and wide application. It can also be made into cloths with different thickness, hand feeling and hardness according to requirements. Nonwoven fabric not only breaks through the traditional textile principle, but also provides a lot of convenience for our lives.


Wood Pulp Nonwoven Fabric can be divided into wet process nonwoven fabric and dry process nonwoven fabric according to the manufacturing process. The wet profess refers to the final formation of nonwoven fabric is in water. The process is usually used in papermaking. The dry profess refers to the final formation of nonwoven fabric is in the air,which including heat seal ( meltblown, spunbond, thermal bonding ), needle-punching, spunlace, chemical bonding, stichbond, etc.


How is Nonwoven Fabric used?
Beyond simple definitions, these engineered fabrics open up a world of innovative possibilities for all types of industries.
Nonwovens may be a limited-life, single-use fabric or a very durable fabric. Nonwoven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellency, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, washability, cushioning, filtering, bacterial barriers and sterility. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. They can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric, and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings.


They are a priceless helper and you always have them in your kitchen. Every housewife will tell you that paper kitchen wipes are mainly used as a first aid for spilled fluids or smaller impurities. However, we found out what other possibilities of use they are hiding.
There is no household in which Kitchen Wipes would not be found. Whether cloth or paper for just a single use. Any housewife would rattle off several ways to use them. However, the question is whether these textiles are really suited for everything. Well, it’s more than questionable.

Best friend in the kitchen
Paper wipes are therefore a more practical choice than their cloth siblings. But we have not yet mentioned their biggest plus – their versatility. In addition to the kitchen, they can be used when washing and polishing windows, cars, bathrooms, gardens, or for pet accidents. But when we take a closer look at the kitchen, their usefulness is even greater. Be the judge!
Fried schnitzel, potato pancakes, forcemeat, fries, … Do you know what is the one thing these „fatty“ meals have in common? You guessed correctly. They are made in oil. Even though you like to eat them, the grease does not have to be dripping off them. Kitchen wipes will prove to be a great helper with this. Such fried food can be put on paper wipes and they will take care of the excess fat.

Industrial Wipes are increasingly used today because of their softness and other properties such as disposability. The consumption of wipes today is, as a report by the Centre for Strategic Economic Studies of Victoria University in 2000 states, "worldwide consumption of technical textiles grew from around US$ 33 billion in 1985 to almost US$50 billion in 1995, and it is predicted that it will reach US$ 72 billion by 2005 ". The worldwide market for technical textile grew at a compound annual rate of 4.2% over the decade 1985 to 1995, and it is forecast to grow at a slightly slower compound annual rate of 3.8% over the decade 1995 to 2005.

A great deal of work has been done on the properties of wipes by Vera Soukupova. This paper discusses properties including bending rigidity, abrasion, wicking, compressional properties, and surface properties obtained by the Kawabata evaluation system on the properties of Wet Wipes. These were not considered by previous workers. The development of non-woven for hygiene products is characterised by its quality demand on the products and increased growth in its volume.

On the industrial end of the non-woven wipes market, the biggest trend has been attempts by manufactures to increase the market share held by non-woven wipes over competitors, rags and rental shop towels. The latter dominates about half of the industrial wiping market, while non-woven represents around a third and rags take the remaining market share.

A wealth of evidence has shown that wearing a Filtering Half Mask helps prevent people from spreading the virus that causes COVID, SARS-CoV-2, to others and from becoming sick themselves. But there has been less guidance from public health officials on what kind of masks provide the best protection.
Early on in the pandemic, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization told the public not to wear N95 respirators, a type of mask that is made from high-tech synthetic fibers and provides a high level of protection against virus-laden airborne particles called aerosols. That was because there was then a shortage of such masks—and health care workers desperately needed them. At the same time, both agencies said there was little risk of aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2. They recommended cloth masks or other homemade face coverings that can stop some relatively large virus-carrying droplets even as it became clear that SARS-CoV-2 commonly spreads through aerosols—and as the supply of better-quality Disposable Face Masks increased.
There is now a cornucopia of high-filtration respirator-style masks on the market, including N95s, Chinese-made KN95s and South Korean–made KF94s. They have been widely available and relatively affordable for months and provide better protection than cloth or surgical masks. Yet it was not until September 10 that the CDC finally updated its guidance to say the general public could wear N95s and other medical-grade masks now that they are in sufficient supply.

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  Transformer: What is it? (Definition And Working Principle)
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 2 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

What is a Transformer?
A transformer is defined as a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through the process of electromagnetic induction. It is most commonly used to increase (‘step up’) or decrease (‘step down’) voltage levels between circuits.

Working Principle of Transformer
The working principle of a Power Transformer is very simple. Mutual induction between two or more windings (also known as coils) allows for electrical energy to be transferred between circuits. This principle is explained in further detail below.

Transformer Theory
Say you have one winding (also known as a coil) which is supplied by an alternating electrical source. The alternating current through the winding produces a continually changing and alternating flux that surrounds the winding.
If another winding is brought close to this winding, some portion of this alternating flux will link with the second winding. As this flux is continually changing in its amplitude and direction, there must be a changing flux linkage in the second winding or coil.
According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, there will be an EMF induced in the second winding. If the circuit of this secondary winding is closed, then a current will flow through it. This is the basic working principle of a Distribution Transformer.
Let us use electrical symbols to help visualize this. The winding which receives electrical power from the source is known as the ‘primary winding’. In the diagram below this is the ‘First Coil’.
The winding which gives the desired output voltage due to mutual induction is commonly known as the ‘secondary winding’. This is the ‘Second Coil’ in the diagram above.

A transformer that increases voltage between the primary to secondary windings is defined as a step-up transformer. Conversely, a transformer that decreases voltage between the primary to secondary windings is defined as a step-down transformer.
Whether the transformer increases or decreases the voltage level depends on the relative number of turns between the primary and secondary side of the Dry Type Transformer.
If there are more turns on the primary coil than the secondary coil than the voltage will decrease (step down).
If there are less turns on the primary coil than the secondary coil than the voltage will increase (step up).
While the diagram of the transformer above is theoretically possible in an ideal transformer – it is not very practical. This is because in the open air only a very tiny portion of the flux produced from the first coil will link with the second coil. So the current that flows through the closed circuit connected to the secondary winding will be extremely small (and difficult to measure).

LV switchgear layout: Design & Size
Low voltage (LV) switchgear is a broad terminology that includes a wide range of equipment like circuit breakers, switches, offload isolators, MCCBs, etc. within the 1 kV rating required to protect the LV system. The most common use of HV And LV Switchgear is in the LV distribution board which further comprises multiple segments like the main incomer, sub-incomers, feeders, etc. the size, configuration, and physical layout for switchgear vary as per specific requirements and standards.
The switchgear is of different type based on the voltage level at which it operates. HV switchgear operates at a voltage level of above 33 kV. MV switchgear operates at the voltage level of 33 kV and below. Likewise, LV switchgear operates at the voltage level of 1.1 kV maximum.
Irrespective of particular voltage levels, switchgear are known for their complete reliability, quick operation, and absolute isolation compared to other similar devices.

Compact Secondary Substations (CSS)
Compact Substations are used for energy transformation in secondary distribution network from MV to LV or LV to MV. CSS is a type tested and arc tested assembly comprising an enclosure containing medium voltage (MV) switchgear, distribution transformers, low voltage (LV) switchboards, connections and auxiliary equipment to supply low voltage energy from medium voltage systems. These substations are typically installed in locations accessible to the public and ensure protection for all people according to specified service conditions.

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  What are the advantages of graphite mould?
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 2 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

The Graphite Sintering Mold materials used in diamond tool manufacturing are mainly graphite materials with ultra-fine particle structure, high purity and high degree of graphitization. The average diameter of graphite mold material is less than 15 microns, or even less than 10 microns, and the average pore diameter is less than 2 microns. The graphite mould made of the carbon material has the advantages of small porosity, compact structure, high surface finish, strong oxidation resistance, etc. The average service life can reach 30 ~ 40 times.
Electron sintered graphite molds and transistor supports can be made from artificial graphite materials with minimal thermal deformation. At present, they are widely used and have become indispensable materials for the development of semiconductor industry.
The electronic sintered graphite mould of hot-pressed sintered diamond cutter has double functions of heating element and die support in the manufacturing process of diamond cutter. The quality of graphite mould directly depends on the size accuracy and appearance shape of diamond cutter.

Graphite Crucible is a container used for melting and casting non-ferrous, non-iron metals such as gold, silver, aluminum, and brass. The main reason graphite crucibles are popular as a manufacturing tool is their thermal conductivity, high temperature resistance, small thermal expansion coefficient for high temperature applications, and their anti strain properties to rapid heating and cooling. They are corrosion resistant to acids and alkaline solutions and have excellent chemical stability.
Graphite can be produced from natural graphite that is a naturally occurring crystalline form of carbon. This form of graphite is manufactured by combining graphite with fire resistant clay or carbon dioxide.
Synthetic graphite is produced by processing petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, which are byproducts of the oil refining process. It has a purer high fixed carbon content with very few impurities and a low sulphur content.

Types of graphite pipes:
There are two types of Graphite Pipe Ring Screw Sleeve Rods: one type is machined graphite pipes from raw block graphite material. graphite materials can be: Isostatic graphite, Molded graphite, Extruded graphite, Vibration graphite, mechanical graphite and carbon brush materials. Another type of graphite pipe is resin extruded graphite pipes, with powder and graphite powder mixed together, then graphitized in high temperature. this type of graphite pipes is mainly used for heat exchangers, and can be with bigger length compared to the first type. It can reach a length of 6-7meters.
Machined graphite pipes is produced from graphite material, so it has the characteristics of graphite material.
Graphite and its products with high strength and acid resistance, corrosion resistance and high temperature 3000 ℃ and low temperature -204 ℃ and other fine features, are widely used in metallurgy, chemical, petrochemical, high-energy physics, aerospace, electronics and so on.


Extruded resin graphite pipes: this type of graphite pipe is with resin powder and graphite powder mixed together, then graphitized in high temperature. This type of graphite pipes is mainly used in heat exchangers, and can be with bigger length compared to the first type. it can reach a length of 6-7meters. but the diameter is not big.
Resin Graphite Rod, mainly refers to the phenolic resin extrusion of graphite tube. This graphite tube has the characteristics of graphite, and it has the characteristics of phenolic resin, so it is a perfect combination. It has excellent corrosion resistance and good thermal conductivity.This graphite tubes is mainly used in tube type graphite heat exchanger. In many corrosive materials under the conditions of heat transfer is widely used. The graphite tubes that CFCCARBON LTD produced is with 300 C heat treatment, its thermal conductivity is about 30-40w / (m.k), much higher than other non-metallic anti-corrosive materials, and higher than the stainless steel. Therefore, graphite resin tube has long been quietly step into hydrochloric acid, chlor-alkali industry, and into the chemical industry, pharmaceutical, metallurgy, electroplating, printing and dyeing, paper, environmental protection and other industries.

Ingot Molds are typically made from metals such as cast iron, ductile iron, steel or aluminum. Ingot molds are used for casting refined metal such as aluminum, copper, lead and zinc into various shapes and sizes for future processing.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
If you need cast iron, ductile iron, steel or aluminum ingot molds for your smelting operation, Dynaform Technologies is your best choice. Possessing an extensive range of metalworking molds, our experts will provide you with the right mold for your needs, regardless of the metal you are working with.

Graphite Block films can shield electronic devices from electromagnetic (EM) radiation, but current techniques for manufacturing them take several hours and require processing temperatures of around 3000 °C. A team of researchers from the Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science at the Chinese Academy of Sciences has now demonstrated an alternative way of making high-quality graphite films in just a few seconds by quenching hot strips of nickel foil in ethanol. The growth rate for these films is more than two orders of magnitude higher than in existing methods, and the films’ electrical conductivity and mechanical strength are on par with those of films made using chemical vapour deposition (CVD).
All electronic devices produce some EM radiation. As devices become ever smaller and operate at higher and higher frequencies, the potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI) grows, and can adversely affect the performance of the device as well as that of nearby electronic systems.
Graphite, an allotrope of carbon built from layers of graphene held together by van der Waals forces, has a number of remarkable electrical, thermal and mechanical properties that make it an effective shield against EMI. However, it needs to be in the form of a very thin film for it to have a high electrical conductivity, which is important for practical EMI applications because it means that the material can reflect and absorb EM waves as they interact with the charge carriers inside it.

For example, a grease-filled ball bearing was used on an oven-door latch—but in tests, the bearing seized and kept the door from latching. Engineers discovered that oven temperatures of over 550°F had, over time, solidified the grease. They tried a graphite-based dry lubricant and found it better tolerated the high temperatures, but made the bearing balls skid and damaged the race. The ball bearing was eventually replaced with a graphite/metal alloy solid bearing and the problem went away.
Graphite Bearings survive temperatures to 1,000°F (535°C) (or higher in nonoxidizing environments), beyond the range of liquid and solid lubricants such as PTFE and molydisulfide, and above the melting point of polymer bearings. They also work at cryogenic temperatures down to -450°F (-240°C).
Graphalloy bearings and bushings are available as flanged bushings, thrust washers, and pillow blocks. Compression strength ranges from 15,000 to 25,000 psi, depending on grade. The bearings are nearly inert and mostly impervious to industrial processing fluids such as petrochemicals, pulp and paper mill liquor, food compounds (some are FDA-acceptable), acids, steam, and certain corrosive gases. Applications include kilns, furnace conveyors, dryer rollers, steady bearings, boiler feed systems, and petrochemical pumps.

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  What is permeation?
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 2 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

What is permeation?
Permeation is the movement of gas or vapor molecules through a barrier. It is driven by the permeant concentration gradient from the permeant’s high concentration side to the low concentration side. The permeation of a material is measured by testing the transmission rate with an analyzer.

What does a permeation analyzer measure?
Permeation Analyzers measure the gas or vapor molecules that transmit through the barriers under controlled conditions. This data gives you the ability to understand if your barrier or film will protect your product for a specific application. Better barriers have lower transmission rates providing better protection. We offer oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor permeation analyzers. The permeation analyzers can measure gas permeability for products in a wide variety of industries and applications. Permeation analyzers can be used to test films, trays, bottles, pouches, cups, pods, caps, containers, blister packs, electronics and more. Our analyzers can test a variety of materials including polymer films, coated paper and paperboard, cartons, coated films and laminations, foils, multi-l

Evaporated Residues Tester can test the dissolving-out amount of test sample soaked in specified liquid. Applicable to tableware, food containers, packaging films, bags, cap sealing rubber pad, painted coating for inner wall of cans or tins, plant fiber container and so on made from polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, perchloroethylene resin, epoxy novolac, etc.; also applicable for some chemical reagents.

Electronic Tensile Testers are specially designed considering tensile testing requirements for flexible materials that are commonly used in product packaging to study different properties of materials.
This instrument utilizes the latest embedded control system and operating software, with user-friendly operating interface and intelligent data management system.
The tensile testing equipment can be used to perform a different types of tests like traction, stripping, sealing, tear, compression, bending, and cutting strength of plastic film, composite film, plastic tapes, soft packaging material, rubber sheets, paper, non-woven fabrics and other packaging materials, widely used in industries related to production of plastic films, packaging, pharmaceuticals, food, inspection agency, research institutes etc. to study properties of materials and finished products.

The Coefficient of Friction Tester is the testing equipment that is used to measure the cofficient friction of materials. There are basically two different kinds of frictions available for packaging testing. The plastic sheets, papers, films, etc. are some materials that will be used to determine its coficient friction. If you are searching for reliable and affordable lab testing equipment then we recommend you to purchase it from Presto Group. This testing machine is effective to determine the coefficient friction.

Introduction about coefficient of friction
The Coefficient Of Friction is considered to be the value that will help to determine the connection between two objects which are involved in testing. It is also considered to be the value that is used in physics to find the normal force of a particular object when other methods are unavailable.
The coefficient of friction is either based on a dynamic value or the static one. But it is a dimensionless quantity that does not have any unit. Besides this, it is a scalar component that does not contain any other physical quantity.
It will depend on the objects that are causing the friction. Therefore you Can make use of the lab testing equipment to determine its value on different materials. Many people have this misconception that the value of this friction is limited to the values between zero and one. This usually means that the friction force is stronger than the normal force.
The Coefficient Of Friction Tester manufactured by Presto is considered to be the best device to determine its value on different materials. Thus, you can easily purchase it from us at affordable prices.
Now, you get the idea about the coefficient of friction. Let us now focus on the uses of testing its value.

Pendulum Impact Tester is a high strain-rate test to determine the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. The Impact tester involves a pendulum of known mass and length which is dropped from a known height to strike an Impact Specimen. Impact specimens are of standard or subsidized dimensions that can be found in a variety of industry standards including ASTM E23, ASTM A370, EN 10045-1 and ISO 148. Various strikers and specimen vises are available to suit all requirements of Charpy or Izod Testing. Specimens are notched using a broaching machine to specific dimensions and geometries. The energy transferred to the material after impact can be inferred by comparing the change in height of the hammer before and after striking the specimen.

Origin and Invention
Heating Shrink as it is known today can be traced back to the early post- World War II era. Scientists started to take notice of the effect of radiation on a variety of materials, including polymers, as nuclear energy programs sprang up in the United States and elsewhere during this time.
In the 1950s, one of these scientists was Paul Cook working out of Stanford University. He was especially interested in the effects of ionizing radiation upon plastics. Cook and some others found after being exposed to radiation, that some plastics took on a heat shrinkable quality.
Cook soon commercialized his discovery by starting his own company (later to become Raychem). Whilst other researchers soon followed his invention, he is largely given credit for bringing heat shrinkable materials to a commercial market. Heat shrinkable tubings and wrapping were available to the public by the early 1960s. Numerous innovations and variations on heat shrinkable products have resulted in continuous growth in this industry ever since.

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  Pressure Vessels
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 2 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

List of mining equipment: Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the land of a deposit. For this extraction to be done efficiently, we need machinery specialized in mining. These Mining Equipment have reinforced chassis and more powerful engines so that they can transport all the material.
Some mining machines are used to transport mining or workers (miners), you can also use machinery to introduce explosives with a longitudinal arm making the explosion more effective.
Other types of mining machinery are used to introduce the concrete into the wall of the rock making it more consistent and safer. Within the mining operations, the activity of management and management of machinery for minerals, affects the cost of operation in general, mainly due to the large amount and variability of resources involved in it.
A large part of the technological innovations points to this activity, both because of its importance in the cost of operation and in the number of stages involved. The management in the handling of minerals, or materials in general, seeks to optimize resources to achieve a simple but complex objective that is the transfer of material from one point to another fulfilling certain quality and quantity requirements in a defined period of time and at minimum cost.

During all the active Lime Production Line, the rotary kiln production process is the most advanced one. Our production process adopt the rotary kiln with the vertical preheater and vertical cooler for the limestone calcination to achieve the production requirements of energy saving, environmental protection, the high activity. We can provide technological solutions and complete production equipment for 50-800TPD quicklime (active lime) production line.

Rotary Kiln System works by processing material in a rotating drum at high temperatures for a specified retention time to cause a physical change or chemical reaction in the material being processed. The kiln is set at a slight slope to assist in moving material through the drum.
Direct-fired kilns utilize direct contact between the material and process gas to efficiently process the material. Combustion can occur in a combustion chamber to avoid direct flame radiation, or the flame can be directed down the length of the kiln.
Direct-fired kilns can be of the co-current or counter-current configuration, referring to the direction the combustion gases flow in relation to the material.
Indirect-fired kilns are used for various processing applications, such as when processing must occur in an inert environment, when working with finely divided solids, or when the processing environment must be tightly controlled.
An indirect-fired kiln is enclosed in a furnace, which is then externally heated. This avoids contact between the combustion gases and the material being processed.

Companies planning to invest in pelletizing equipment can select the right system by making a thorough inventory of their operational and application needs, in addition to the basic consideration of cost. Three major types of pelletizing system are available, each with a distinctly different range of strengths and weaknesses. With the growth of the plastics industry and the continual emergence of new requirements in the marketplace, even a company that has long used a particular system may need to consider an alternative when the time comes to add capacity.
Oxidized Pellet Plants are essential components in resin manufacture, compounding, masterbatch production, and recycling. A high-volume system that is appropriate for a polymerization plant will be very different from one that suits the needs of a toll compounder. One that can produce micropellets for use in masterbatch may not be the best choice for processing post-consumer regrind. What follows is an evaluation of each type.
As with other Grate-Kiln Pelletizing Systems, the cooling water in the UWP is supplied by a process-water unit, which tempers the water—that is, mixes hot and cold water to ensure a constant temperature—and filters out dust and fines. Water temperature must be carefully controlled and adjusted according to the properties of the polymer being pelletized. Failure to do so can lead to malformed pellets or process disruptions.
In UWPs, all cooling water is transported to and from the cutting chamber by means of pipes, making unnecessary water troughs or water slides found in other pelletizing systems. As a result, the centrifugal pellet dryer and water-treatment equipment can be installed at some distance from the pelletizer—in another room, for example, or on another floor.

What Are Pressure Vessels?
Pressure Vessels are enclosed containers used to hold liquids, vapors, and gases at a pressure significantly higher or lower than the ambient pressure. They are widely used in various industries such as petrochemical, oil and gas, chemical, and food processing industries. Equipment such as reactors, flash drums, separators, and heat exchangers are examples of pressure vessels.
Each pressure vessel must be operated within its design temperature and pressure, which is the pressure vessel‘s safety limits. The design, construction, and testing of pressure vessels are extensively carried out by knowledgeable personnel and are governed by regulations because the accidental release and leakage of its contents is a danger to its surrounding environment. Some of the well-known standards are the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) Section VIII, and the American Petroleum Industry (API) 510 Pressure Vessel Inspection Code.

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  Oil Filters: Quality Matters
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 2 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

To many people, Oil Filters are a generic product. Price is the only factor considered when they choose a filter. They do look pretty much the same on the outside, but what’s inside can make a big difference.

Filter manufacturers use a variety of different filter media to keep the oil clean. Resin impregnated paper filter media has been around forever and uses cellulose fibers to trap contaminants. A high-quality paper filter element with evenly spaced pleating can provide good filtering efficiency. The typical OEM or standard replacement oil filter with cellulose fiber media will trap about 97.5 percent of most particles that are 15 to 40 microns in size or larger.
Some filters use a combination of cellulose fibers and non-woven plastic or synthetic fibers to improve filtering efficiency. The different materials may be combined together or used in a multi-layer filter element. These types of Car Oil Filters can have filtering efficiencies as high as 99.5 percent and trap up to 40 percent more contaminants with particle sizes as small as 3 to 5 microns.

One of the biggest challenges that all oil filters have to cope with today is longer service life. Though 3,000-mile oil changes are still recommended for severe service driving, OEM-recommended oil change intervals for “normal” driving today can range from 5,000 to 7,500 miles, or up to 10,000 miles or more. Many vehicles don’t even have a recommended service interval and rely instead on a “Service Reminder Light” to estimate when the oil needs to be changed. On some vehicles, the light may not come on for 12,000 to 15,000 miles depending on driving conditions! That’s a long time for an Engine Oil Filter to remain in service.
According to some sources, some of the cheapest no-name generic oil filters from China are not even lasting 3,000 miles before they plug up and go into bypass mode. All oil filters have a bypass valve that is designed to open if the filter becomes clogged. The bypass valve prevents a dangerous loss of oil pressure in such situations, but also allows dirty unfiltered oil to circulate through the engine. It’s the same as running with no oil filter at all!

Worse yet, if the Air Filter media breaks apart or fails, chunks of debris can enter oil passages and cause all kinds of problems inside the engine. Such debris can restrict or block critical oil passages causing a loss of oil pressure or engine damage.
The best advice you can give your filter customers is to buy the best oil filter that is listed for their engine — especially if they are not changing their oil for 7,500 miles or more. Many premium filters can go 10,000 miles or more. In any event, extended oil service intervals of 10,000 miles or more require both synthetic motor oil and a premium quality filter.

Car Air Filters are a must if you want your beloved car to run like a Champion. When one of your filters gets clogged, it can cause problems and affect performance. You may notice a loss of power, dirty smoke, oil light or even engine failure. In this article, we’ll look at the different filters in your car and why you need to consider car filter replacing regularly.

Get to know the filters in your car
Every car has four main filters: the cabin filter, oil filter, fuel filter and air filter. The function of all these filters is to enable flows and catch impurities: the dust and contaminants in the air, the impurities in the fuel or the dirt in the motor oil. If your Engine Air Filters are not replaced in time, they won't work properly and in the end, it could cause an impact on the mechanics. By replacing your filters, your car will be more efficient.

What is a cabin filter?
The Cabin Filter cleans the air that comes into the interior of your car through heating and air conditioning. It filters out dust, pollen and other airborne particles. If you’ve got a carbon activated cabin filter it also captures exhaust gasses and odours. Having clean air in your car is particularly important if you have any allergies or respiratory problems.

What’s a cabin air filter?
You are probably aware that your vehicle’s engine has an air filter, but did you know that your car’s HVAC (heating ventilation and air conditioning) system may also have one? Commonly called a cabin air filter, it performs the same duties for your HVAC system as the engine air filter does for your car’s engine.
The cabin air filter is a small pleated filter made of multi-fiber paper cotton or other engineered material. Before entering the passenger compartment, outside air is directed through this filter to trap the contaminants inside the filter and prevent them from entering the inside of your vehicle.

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  Chip fuse is pulse and temperature resistant
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 2 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

The levels of miniaturization typically demanded by these end user groups place a premium on every square millimeter of board space. Designers need to minimize the real estate devoted to secondary over-current protection. Conventional wire fuses in SMD packages display a number of strong features: they are robust, have high breaking capacity, are available in ratings up to 10 A, and the technology also supports fast acting or time delay type fuse operation. They can address a wide range of applications, including over-current protection of power lines. On the other hand, package sizes are not likely to reduce below the industrystandard 2410 SMT outline. In consumer applications where low rated currents and breaking capacities are required, Chip Fuses are emerging to satisfy designers’ demands for the next level of component miniaturization.
Chip fuses feature a conductive fuse element that is typically deposited as a thick-film, electroplated, or thin-film layer onto a ceramic substrate. Using these basic technologies, secondary over-current protection is able to migrate into smaller SMT packages including 1206, 0603, and even 0402. However, two further imperatives are the need for long-term stability of the fusing characteristic and a low unit price to enable a cost-effective solution. Stability is heavily dependent on the accuracy of the fabrication technique used to create the fuse element. Traditionally, a thick-film element for a chip fuse is deposited using a screen printing process, while most fuse elements are electroplated. Both of these techniques enable quite accurate control over the dimensions of the fuse element in order to achieve the desired fusing characteristic. However, the homogeneous crystal structure of the metal layer has an important influence over the long-term stability, due to aging factors such as power dissipation or external high temperatures in combination with thermal cycles. To simultaneously improve control over the dimensions and crystal structure of the fuse element, Vishay Beyschlag MFU-series chip fuses are created using a thin film sputtering process in place of screen printing or electro-plating.
This process leverages precision chip resistor manufacturing knowledge and assembly capacity. In addition, a special protective coating comprising layers of glass and epoxy lacquer also now raises the capability of chip fuses to withstand harsh thermal shocks and wide-ranging humidity requirements. Benchmark tests on MFU series chip fuses demonstrate superior performance in this respect due to this special protective system.

The thermally activated fuse is the oldest circuit protection device and is still in widespread use. It is well understood, reliable, consistent, and approved by regulatory standards. However, with end products increasing in complexity and shrinking in size, designers need an alternative to the user-replaceable fuse and fuse holder in order to reduce the form factor, simplify assembly, improve ruggedness, and further enhance safety.
Instead, designers can use surface mount devices (SMDs) without a performance compromise. SMD- Mount Fuses employ diverse technologies to provide thermal-based fusing along with the full range of necessary fuse characteristics, such as fast acting and slow blow.

The Basics: How Does a Fuse Work?
A fuse is a simple and highly effective way to protect a device from dangerous levels of current:

  • Current flowing through a conductor’s nonzero resistance leads to power dissipation.

  • Power is dissipated in the form of heat.

  • Heat raises the temperature of the conductor.

  • If the combination of current amplitude and duration is sufficient to raise the temperature above the fuse’s melting point, the fuse becomes an open circuit and current flow ceases.
Though the fundamental operation of an Axial Lead & Cartridge Fuse is not complicated, there are subtle points to keep in mind. The rest of this article will help you to understand some important details related to the behavior and use of fuses.

How a Fuse Is Tripped: Heat, Not Current
A fuse is not tripped directly by current; rather, the current creates heat, and heat trips the fuse. This is actually a rather important distinction because it means that the Automotive Fuse operation is influenced by ambient temperature and by the temporal characteristics of the current.
The specified current rating of a fuse is relevant only to a specific ambient temperature (usually, or maybe always, 25°C), and consequently you need to adjust your fuse selection if you’re designing a device that will operate outdoors in, say, Antarctica or Death Valley. The following plot shows how ambient temperature affects the actual current rating—relative to the nominal 25°C current rating—of three types of fuses.

Regarding the temporal characteristics of the current passing through the Power Fuse, we all know that the effect of heat accumulates over time (momentarily touching a hot skillet is nothing compared to picking it up and realizing that it’s hot when you’re halfway between the stove and the dining table). Consequently, the current rating of a fuse is a simplification of its real behavior. We can’t expect a fuse to respond to high-amplitude transients because the short duration of the higher power dissipation doesn’t increase the temperature enough to cause tripping.
The following plot shows the time-current characteristics for a group of surface-mount fuses made by Panasonic. The rated current is on top, and the curve represents the amount of time required to trip the fuse in relation to the amount of current flowing through the fuse.

Fuse Design Best Practices: Rated Current vs. Operating Current
It would be perfectly reasonable to assume that a fuse rated for 6 amps could be used in a circuit that might need 5 amps of steady-state current. It turns out, though, that this is not good design practice.
The current rating of a Resettable Fuse is not a high-precision specification, and furthermore (as discussed above) the actual tripping current is influenced by ambient temperature. Consequently, to avoid “nuisance tripping,” you should have a fairly generous gap between your expected steady-state current and your fuse’s rated current.
This document from Littelfuse suggests a “rerating” of 25% (for operation at room temperature); thus, a fuse with a rating of 10 amps would be used only if the circuit’s steady-state current will stay below 7.5 amps.

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  Cable Cable Cable Cable
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 2 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

Auto Cable, in electrical and electronic systems, a conductor or group of conductors for transmitting electric power or telecommunication signals from one place to another. Electric communication cables transmit voice messages, computer data, and visual images via electrical signals to telephones, wired radios, computers, teleprinters, facsimile machines, and televisions. There is no clear distinction between an electric wire and an electric cable. Usually the former refers to a single, solid metallic conductor, with or without insulation, while the latter refers to a stranded conductor or to an assembly of insulated conductors. With fibre-optic cables, made of flexible fibres of glass and plastic, electrical signals are converted to light pulses for the transmission of audio, video, and computer data.

Electric power cables
The most common type of electric power cable is that which is suspended overhead between poles or steel towers. These aerial cables consist of a number of wires, usually of copper or aluminum, twisted (stranded) together in concentric layers. Copper or aluminum is chosen for high electrical conductivity, while stranding gives the cable flexibility. Because aerial Motorcycle Cables are frequently subjected to severe environmental stresses, alloys of copper or aluminum are sometimes used to increase the mechanical strength of the cable, although at some detriment to its electrical conductivity. A more common design is to include in the stranded cable assembly a number of high-strength, noncorrosive steel wires. Many aerial cables, especially those operating at high voltages, are bare (uninsulated). Cables operating at lower voltages frequently have coverings of asphalt-saturated cotton braid, polyethylene, or other dielectric (nonconducting) material. These coverings offer some protection against short-circuiting and accidental electric shock.
Another type of electric power cable is installed in underground ducts and is extensively used in cities where lack of space or considerations of safety preclude the use of overhead lines. Unlike an aerial cable, a buried Control Cable For Machine invariably uses commercially pure copper or aluminum (mechanical strength is not a problem underground), and the stranded conductor is frequently rolled to maximize its compactness and electrical conductance.
Aerial and underground power cables compose a major portion of the electrical circuit from the generator to the point of utilization of the electric power. The balance of the circuit (and sometimes the entire circuit) may, however, require specialized cables. Illustrative of these usages and of the special conditions to be met are cables for use in steel mills and boiler rooms (high temperature), on mobile equipment (vibration and excessive flexing), in chemical plants (corrosion), for submarines and mines (mechanical abuse), near nuclear reactors (high radiation), and on artificial satellites (pressure extremes).

Electric telecommunication cables
Electric cables used to transmit information are quite different from power cables, both in function and in design. Power cables are designed for high voltages and high current loads, whereas both voltage and current in a communication cable are small. Control Cable For Boats operate on direct current or low-frequency alternating current, while communication cables operate at higher frequencies. A power cable usually has not more than three conductors, each of which may be 1 inch (2.5 cm) or more in diameter; a telephone cable may have several thousand conductors, the diameter of each being less than 0.05 inch (0.125 cm).
Protective coverings for electric communication cables are similar to those for electric power cables. They usually consist of an aluminum or lead-alloy tube or of a combination of metallic strips and thermoplastic materials. The insulation of a telephone cable is composed of dry cellulose (in the form of paper tape wrapped around the conductor or paper pulp applied to the conductor) or of polyethylene. The insulation thickness is a few hundredths of an inch or less. A coaxial cable, which first gained widespread use during World War II, is a two-conductor cable in which one of the conductors takes the form of a tube while the other (smaller but also circular in cross section) is supported, with a minimum of solid insulation, at the centre of the tube. Several of these coaxial units may be assembled within a common jacket, or sheath.
The construction of long submarine Spare Parts For Control Cable for either telephone or telegraph service is somewhat different from that discussed previously. A transatlantic cable for telegraphs was first completed in 1858 and for telephones in 1956; a fibre-optic cable first spanned the Atlantic Ocean in 1988. See also undersea cable.

The Auto Filters in a vehicle help remove harmful pollutants, including pollen and dust, from the air you breathe within the car. This filter is often located behind the glovebox and cleans the air as it moves through the vehicle's HVAC system. If you notice that your car has an unpleasant odor or the airflow has decreased, consider replacing the cabin filter to give the system, and yourself, a breath of fresh air.
This filter is a small pleated unit, often made of an engineered material or paper-based, multifiber cotton. Before air can move into the interior of the car, it goes through this filter, trapping any contaminants within the air to prevent them from infiltrating the air you breathe.

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  What is an Air Curtain?
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 3 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

An Air Curtain, also known as an air door, is a machine that blows a controlled stream of air across an opening to the other side to create an air seal. This seal separates different environments while allowing a smooth, uninterrupted flow of traffic and unobstructed vision through the opening. Because they help to contain heated or conditioned air, they provide sizable energy savings and increased personal comfort when applied in industrial or commercial settings. They also help to stop the infiltration of pollutants and flying insects.


How Does an Air Curtain Work?

  1. Once it is powered on, air is brought into the unit through the intake

  2. The air then enters the fan housing and is accelerated by the fan.

  3. This fast-moving air goes into a plenum, which allows for an even distribution of air along the full length of the discharge nozzle.

  4. Airfoil-shaped vanes in the nozzle create a uniform air stream with minimal turbulence.

  5. The air discharged through the nozzle creates a jet stream to the floor. Approximately 80% of the air returns to the intake side of the Air Curtain Door, and 20% goes in the opposite direction.
Why Use an Air Curtain?
  • Energy savings through control of air transfer

  • Energy savings due to shorter run times of air handler or compressor

  • Safe environment support by increasing ventilation and de-stratifying the air

  • Maintain employee/customer comfort

  • Reduce flying insect infiltration

  • Unhindered traffic flow & unobstructed visibility across the threshold

  • Increase productivity due to stable temperatures

  • Maintain usable space around the door

  • Elimination of ice and fog in cold storage areas
Do Air Curtains Cool a Room?
While Air Curtain Blowers are not the same as air conditioners, they are highly effective at maintaining the interior temperature, keeping cool air inside and warm air outside (or vice versa) when the door is open. They are sometimes referred to as “invisible doors” as they create an invisible barrier between inside and outside environments. Because they help to contain heated or conditioned air, they provide sizable energy savings and increased personal comfort when applied in industrial or commercial settings.

Do Air Curtains Keep Flies Out?
Yes! And mosquitos, yellowjackets, and bees. Air Curtain Fans, sometimes referred to as fly fans, supply a high velocity stream of air across a door or window opening that keeps pests like insects from entering the building. These flies and other small insects, find the air stream too powerful for them to fly through and if they try, they are blown down or sideways before they can enter the building.
How Much Does an Air Curtain Cost?
Electric Air Curtains can range in price depending on features, the application, and specific requirements. Consult a Berner sales rep today to get pricing on a model and control package that is best suited for your project.

Air Coolers, also known as evaporative or swamp coolers, cool an atmosphere by evaporating water. As air flows over water, certain particles on the water's surface are carried away. These particles take the heat with them, and this allows the air to cool. This is the main mechanism behind air coolers. Continue reading the article to know more about them.
How Does Air Cooler Work With Water?
Sweating also functions in the same way: the water particles on the skin's surface bring heat away with them as they evaporate, cooling the skin. It is also known that these air coolers are able to make use of 75% less energy as compared to the central air conditioners.
Evaporative coolers come in a variety of styles. A fine mist is sprayed into the air and then whipped out by a fan in some methods. Since the water in this mist is made up of fine droplets, it evaporates easily and absorbs heat from the air. In some other methods, the air is made to blow through a material that has been wetted. It can be blown through a fine mesh or past wet sheets, for example. This wet material then cools as it evaporates, and this, in turn, cools the air.

Ventilating a building simply replaces stale or foul air with clean, fresh air. Although the ventilation process is required for many different applications, the airflow fundamentals never change: Undesired air out, fresh air in. The key variables that do change depending on applications are the fan model and the air volume flow rate (CFM). Other considerations include the resistance to airflow (static pressure or SP) and sound produced by the fan (Sones). Sometimes you need a Exhaust Fan to perform a particular function, but it’s not clear which model to use or even what CFM is needed. If this is the case, you’ll need to do some fan specification work. Fan specification is not an exact science, but it can be done confidently when the fan application is understood.

Fans all perform the basic function of moving air from one space to another. But the great diversity of fan applications creates the need for manufacturers to develop many different models. Each model has benefits for certain applications, providing the most economical means of performing the air movement function. The trick for most users is sorting through all of the models available to find one that is suitable for their needs. Here are some guidelines.

An indoor Air Purifier ensures the filtration of air within an enclosed/closed place, which is processed then released as purified air. It operates as a complement to natural ventilation where it is possible to open windows.

It is vital to distinguish a professional model from a consumer device: they do not both guarantee identical air treatment or comparable overall performance.
A professional air purifier, equipped with a HEPA 13 or 14 filter, will operate effectively on pollens, fine particles PM2.5 and PM10, VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), viruses and bacteria. Finally, the device’s benign operation is key: that is to say the air purifier itself does not generate any secondary pollutants. To limit the diffusion of harmful residues, allergens or even viral elements; prevent asthma or allergy problems linked to poor indoor air quality to people at risk (children, elderly or sensitive people).
Home Air Purifier, not to be confused with an air ioniser or air humidifier, can be used as a preventative and/or therapeutic measure: at home, in enclosed offices, open spaces or coworking sites, shops, hairdressing salons, hotels or restaurants, medical and paramedical offices… By extension, as Covid-19 is obliging us, it is assuming an expanding rôle in schools, hospitals, medical and paramedical sectors, services.

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  How Does Bitcoin Mining Work?
Yazar: anpaituo121 - 3 saat önce - Forum: TAMAMLANMIŞ 3D ÇALIŞMALARI (ÇALIŞMA PAYLAŞIMLARI) - Yorum Yok

What Is Bitcoin Mining?
Bitcoin mining is the process by which new bitcoins are entered into circulation; it is also the way that new transactions are confirmed by the network and a critical component of the maintenance and development of the blockchain ledger. "Mining" is performed using sophisticated hardware that solves an extremely complex computational math problem. The first computer to find the solution to the problem is awarded the next block of bitcoins and the process begins again.
Cryptocurrency mining is painstaking, costly, and only sporadically rewarding. Nonetheless, mining has a magnetic appeal for many investors interested in cryptocurrency because of the fact that Asic Miners are rewarded for their work with crypto tokens. This may be because entrepreneurial types see mining as pennies from heaven, like California gold prospectors in 1849. And if you are technologically inclined, why not do it?
However, before you invest the time and equipment, read this explainer to see whether mining is really for you.

A New Gold Rush
The primary draw for many mining is the prospect of being rewarded with Bitcoin. That said, you certainly don't have to be an Antminer to own cryptocurrency tokens. You can also buy cryptocurrencies using fiat currency; you can trade it on an exchange like Bitstamp using another crypto (as an example, using Ethereum or NEO to buy Bitcoin); you even can earn it by shopping, publishing blog posts on platforms that pay users in cryptocurrency, or even set up interest-earning crypto accounts.

An example of a crypto blog platform is Steemit, which is kind of like Medium except that users can reward bloggers by paying them in a proprietary cryptocurrency called STEEM. STEEM can then be traded elsewhere for Bitcoin.
The Bitcoin reward that Whatsminers receive is an incentive that motivates people to assist in the primary purpose of mining: to legitimize and monitor Bitcoin transactions, ensuring their validity. Because these responsibilities are spread among many users all over the world, Bitcoin is a "decentralized" cryptocurrency, or one that does not rely on any central authority like a central bank or government to oversee its regulation.

Mining to Prevent Double Spend
Avalon Miners are getting paid for their work as auditors. They are doing the work of verifying the legitimacy of Bitcoin transactions. This convention is meant to keep Bitcoin users honest and was conceived by Bitcoin's founder, Satoshi Nakamoto.1 By verifying transactions, miners are helping to prevent the "double-spending problem."
Double spending is a scenario in which a Bitcoin owner illicitly spends the same bitcoin twice. With physical currency, this isn't an issue: once you hand someone a $20 bill to buy a bottle of vodka, you no longer have it, so there's no danger you could use that same $20 bill to buy lotto tickets next door. While there is the possibility of counterfeit cash being made, it is not exactly the same as literally spending the same dollar twice. With digital currency, however, as the Investopedia dictionary explains, "there is a risk that the holder could make a copy of the digital token and send it to a merchant or another party while retaining the original." Let's say you had one legitimate $20 bill and one counterfeit of that same $20. If you were to try to spend both the real bill and the fake one, someone that took the trouble of looking at both of the bills' serial numbers would see that they were the same number, and thus one of them had to be false. What a Bitcoin Innosilicon Miner does is analogous to that—they check transactions to make sure that users have not illegitimately tried to spend the same bitcoin twice. This isn't a perfect analogy—we'll explain in more detail below.

Mining to Produce New Bitcoins
In addition to lining the pockets of miners and supporting the Bitcoin ecosystem, mining serves another vital purpose: It is the only way to release new cryptocurrency into circulation. In other words, miners are basically "minting" currency. For example, as of September 2021, there were around 18.82 million bitcoins in circulation, out of an ultimate total of 21 million.2
Aside from the coins minted via the genesis block (the very first block, which was created by founder Satoshi Nakamoto), every single one of those bitcoins came into being because of miners. In the absence of miners, Bitcoin as a network would still exist and be usable, but there would never be any additional bitcoin. However, because the rate of bitcoin "mined" is reduced over time, the final bitcoin won't be circulated until around the year 2140. This does not mean that transactions will cease to be verified. Miners will continue to verify transactions and will be paid in fees for doing so in order to keep the integrity of Bitcoin's network.3 To earn new bitcoins, you need to be the first miner to arrive at the right answer, or closest answer, to a numeric problem. This process is also known as proof of work (PoW). To begin mining is to start engaging in this proof-of-work activity to find the answer to the puzzle. No advanced math or computation is really involved. You may have heard that miners are solving difficult mathematical problems—that's true but not because the math itself is hard. What they're actually doing is trying to be the first miner to come up with a 64-digit hexadecimal number (a "hash") that is less than or equal to the target hash. It's basically guesswork.1 It is a matter of guesswork or randomness, but with the total number of possible guesses for each of these problems being on the order of trillions, it's incredibly arduous work. And the number of possible solutions only increases the more miners that join the mining network (known as the mining difficulty). In order to solve a problem first, Goldshell Miners need a lot of computing power. To mine successfully, you need to have a high "hash rate," which is measured in terms gigahashes per second (GH/s) and terahashes per second (TH/s).

Mining and Voting Power
Aside from the short-term payoff of newly minted bitcoins, being a coin miner can also give you "voting" power when changes are proposed in the Bitcoin network protocol. This is known as a BIP (Bitcoin Improvement Protocol). In other words, miners have some degree of influence on the decision-making process on such matters as forking. The more hash power you possess, the more votes you have to cast for such initiatives.

How Much a Miner Earns
The rewards for Bitcoin mining are reduced by half roughly every four years.1 When bitcoin was first mined in 2009, mining one block would earn you 50 BTC. In 2012, this was halved to 25 BTC. By 2016, this was halved again to 12.5 BTC. On May 11, 2020, the reward halved again to 6.25 BTC.

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